British defeat of the French during the Seven Years' War ended with the signing of the Articles of Capitulation in the surrender of Montréal on 8 September 1760. The cessation of the war and succession of power included a specific clause on enslavement. Article XLVII (42) stated:The Negroes and panis of both sexes shall remain, in their quality of slaves, in the possession of the French and Canadians to whom they belong; they shall be at liberty to keep them in their service in the colony, or to sell them; and they may also continue to bring them up in the Roman Religion.—“Granted, except those who shall have been made prisoners.”

March 1793

The Chloe Cooley incident occurred. Enslaved Cooley was forcefully bound and brought across the Niagara River to be sold into the United States. This incident was reported to the Executive Council of the provincial legislature who used it to unsuccessfully introduce legislation to abolish enslavement.

July 1793

An Act to Prevent the further Introduction of Slaves and to limit the Term of Contracts for Servitude (also known as the Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada).


Bill introduced to reverse the Act to Limit Slavery to reinstitute enslavement to encourage white immigration to the province. It passed three readings in the Legislative House of Assembly, but members of the Legislative Council tied it up and prevented it from becoming law.


Trial of enslaved man, Jack York, charged with burglary with intent to commit a felony. York was sentenced to death but was not executed. He escaped with the assistance of his enslaver’s colleagues and returned to his enslaver's property some time after.


Tom, an enslaved 15-year old was hired out/sold for 10 years, the remaining time the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery permitted for him to be enslaved until the age of 25.


Enslavement abolished in most British colonies