Published References

My Works


Chloe Cooley: A Black Woman Enslaved in Niagara. Making Her Mark: The Women of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Niagara Historical Society. [forthcoming]

Where, Oh Where, is Bett? Locating Enslaved Africans on the Ontario Landscape. In M. Johnson & F. Aladejebi (Eds.). Unsettling the Great White North: African Canadian History. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press. [forthcoming]


The Plaques that mark the history of colonialism and enslavement, Spacing, November 2020. Apology, Truth, and Reparations: The Overdue Reckoning with Canada’s Slave Past. If Black Lives Truly Matter, An Apology for Slavery is Only a First Step. Spacing, June 2020.

Selected Bibliography on Enslavement in Canada


Cooper, Afua. The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2007.

Elgersman, Maureen G. (2013). Unyielding Spirits: Black Women and Slavery in Early Canada and Jamaica. New York: Routledge.

Mackey, Frank. Done with Slavery: The Black Fact in Montreal, 1760-1840. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010.

Nelson, Charmaine. Slavery, Geography and Empire in Nineteenth-Century Marine Landscapes of Montreal and Jamaica. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Power, Michael and Butler. Nancy. Slavery and Freedom in Niagara. The Niagara Historical Society, 1993.

Rushforth, Brett. Bonds of Alliance: Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Trudel, Marcel. Canada's Forgotten Slaves: Two Hundred Years of Bondage. Translated by George Tombs. Montréal: Véhicule Press, 2013.

Trudel, Marcel. Deux siècles d’esclavage au Québec. Montreal: Éditions Hurtubise HMH, 2004.

Trudel, Marcel. L'Esclavage au Canada Français: Histoire et conditions de l’esclavage. Montréal: Les Presses Universitaires Laval, 1960.

Whitfield, Harvey Amani. North to Bondage: Loyalist Slavery in the Maritimes. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2016.

Journal Articles

Canniff, William. Slavery in Canada, History of the Province of Ontario (Upper Canada). Toronto: A. H. Hovey & Co., 1872, 569 - 579.

Casey, Thomas W. “Early Slavery in Midland District,” Lennox and Addington Historical Society, Papers and Records, Vol. 4, (1912), 12—21.

Fleming, Roy F. “Negro Slaves with the United Empire Loyalists in Upper Canada,” Ontario History, Vol.45 (1953), 27 – 30.

Jack, Isaac Allen. The Loyalists and Slavery in New Brunswick. .Ottawa?: Royal Society of Canada, 1898.

Nielson, John Louis Hubert. “Slavery in Old Canada: Before and After the Conquest’ Transactions, No. 26. Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, (1906), 19 – 45.

Riddell, William Renwick. “The Slave in Canada,” Journal of Negro History, vol.5, no.3, (July 1920).

Smith, Thomas Watson, The Slave in Canada. S.I.: S.N., 1899.